Humanistic psychology emerged in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s, and is one of the main schools of contemporary American psychology.
The humanistic psychology school represented by Maslow, Rogers and others, parted ways with the psychoanalysis school and behaviorism school, forming the third trend of psychology.
Influenced by phenomenology and existential philosophy is obvious.
The spirit of the times: Anti-mainstream cultural movement.
Dissatisfaction with society.
By American Psychologist A.
Founded by H. Maslow, and currently represented by C.
Humanism opposes the vulgarization of human psychology and the height of animalization, so it is called the 33th trend in psychology.
1. Maslow’s theory of self-actualization Maslow believes that the psychological driving force of human behavior is not sexual instinct, but human needs. He divided it into two categories, seven levels, like a pyramid, from the bottom up.In order, they are physiological needs, safety needs, belonging and love needs, respect needs, awareness needs, aesthetic needs, and self-actualization needs.
Before a person can meet the needs of the higher level, he must at least partially meet the needs of the lower level.
The first type of need belongs to the need of lack. It can be redundant and boring at the beginning. It is shared by people and animals. Once it is satisfied, the tension is eliminated, the excitement is reduced, and the motivation is lost.
The second type of need belongs to the need for growth, which can generate growth motivation and is unique to human beings. It is a need that transcends the existence and satisfaction, and craves development and realizes its own potential from the heart.
Satisfying this need for individuals to enter the state of psychological freedom, embodying the nature and value of people, and produce a deep sense of happiness, which Maslow calls “the peak experience.”
Maslow believes that human beings share the inner nature of truth, goodness, beauty, justice, joy, and have common values and moral standards. The key to achieving human self-realization is to improve people’s “knowledge” or self-awareness, so that people can recognize themselves.The inherent potential or value of humanism is to promote human self-realization.
2. Rogers’s theory of self The newborn baby does not have the concept of the self. Transforming his (her) interaction with others and the environment, he (she) begins to slowly distinguish himself from non-self.
After the initial self-concept was formed, people’s self-actualization tended to be activated. Driven by the power of self-actualization, children carried out various trial activities in the environment and produced a lot of experience.
Through the automatic estimation process of the body, some experienced he feels satisfied and happy, and some are opposite. The contented and happy experience leads the child to seek to maintain, reappear, dissatisfied, and unhappy experience makes the child try to avoid it.
Among children seeking positive experiences, there is an experience generated by the care of others, and an experience generated by the respect of others. Unfortunately, this kind of caring and observance of children requires the satisfaction of others, including others (includingParents) decide whether to give care and respect based on whether the child ‘s behavior meets its value standards and behavior standards. Therefore, the care and respect of others are conditional, and these conditions reflect the values of parents and society. Rogers called this condition asValue conditions. Children continue to experience these value conditions through their own behaviors. They will unconsciously internalize these values that belong to parents or others and become part of their self-structure. Gradually, children are forced to give up the process of estimating according to their own organism.To evaluate experience, it becomes to use the internalized social value norms to evaluate experience, so that the child’s self and experience are alienated. When there is a conflict between experience and self, the individual will feel selfThreatened, causing concern.
When anticipating experience and self-independence, individuals will use defensive mechanisms (distortion, denial, and selective perception) to process experience to bring it in line with self at the level of consciousness.
If the defense is successful, the individual will not have an adaptation disorder. If the defense fails, the psychological adaptation disorder will occur. Rogers’ human-centered treatment goal is to remove the part of the self that was not internalized and formed, and retrieve it.His own thoughts, emotions, and behavioral patterns, in Rogers’ words, “turned back to himself” and “walked out from behind the mask”. Only such people can fully exert their personal functions.
The essence of humanism is that people understand their own nature, no longer rely on external values, make people trust again, rely on the evaluation process of the body to deal with experience, and eliminate the value imposed on them by internalization through the external environment, so that people canExpress your thoughts and feelings freely, decide your own behavior by your own will, master your own destiny, restore the destroyed potential of self-realization, and promote the healthy development of personality.
The contributions and limitations of the humanistic psychology school in the development of psychology are opposed to the psychoanalytic school that regards sick people as the research object and regards humans as instinctual victims, and also opposes the behaviorism that puts people as physical and chemical objectsschool.
Declares that research is meaningful to human progress and cares about human values and dignity.
Perspective the conditions and social environment of the direction and influence of human innate potential.